The Quality Function Deployment (QFD) Matrix. I love this tool for its versatility. You can dial the technical application of the QFD up or down depending on the need. At its most basic, you can use the matrix part of the QFD to understand how customer requirements correlate with your product or service offerings, or process steps. This can guide strategic changes and locate areas for process improvement.
At the other extreme, I once used the QFD matrix as a roadmap for a process improvement project that used statistical methods to optimize every process step and piece of equipment. The QFD worked as a planning tool, a guide and a way to organize team assignments. It was also an effective communication tool with management since it was able to illustrate both intention, scope and details of an extremely complex project plan. We even used it as a vehicle to document results